base, radix: In mathematical numeral systems, the radix or base is the number of unique digits, including zero, used to represent numbers in a positional numeral system. For example, for the decimal system (the most common system in use today) the radix is ten, because it uses the ten digits from 0 through 9 1.
binary: A number system with radix 2, commonly used digital logic circuitry.
hexadecimal: A number system with radix 16, widely used by computer programmers as a human-friendly representation of binary values.
transistor: An electrical component used as an electrically-controlled switch in digital logic circuits 2.
bit: A logic 1 or 0 (True or False) in computer circuitry.
byte: A combination of 8 bits.
nibble: Half of a byte, or 4 bits.